Artículo
Documento sin ttulo

10.15178/va.2019.148.57-76
RESEARCH

STUDY ABOUT LABOR EXPECTATIONS OF STUDENTES OF THE INITIAL EDUCATION CAREER AT THE METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY CARACAS-VENEZUELA

ESTUDIO SOBRE EXPECTATIVAS LABORALES DE ESTUDIANTES DE LA CARRERA DE EDUCACIÓN INICIAL EN LA UNIVERSIDAD METROPOLITANA DE CARACAS-VENEZUELA

ESTUDOS SOBRE AS EXPECTATIVAS LABORAIS DOS ESTUDANTES QUE CURSAM EDUCAÇÃO INICIAL NA UNIVERSIDADE METROPOLITANA DE CARACAS – VENEZUELA

Natalia Castañón-Octavio1

Profesora e investigadora en la Universidad Metropolitana. Licenciada en Educación (Universidad Metropolitana, 1991).

Maestría en Psicología Escolar (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 1993). Doctorada en Filosofía y Ciencias de la Educación (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 1999).

Laura Ocanto-Gómez1

Valerie Tirado-Aldana1

1Metropolitan University. Venezuela

ABSTRACT
The main objective of this study was to determine the job expectations of the students of the Initial Education career at the Metropolitan University (Caracas-Venezuela) to contribute to the process of continuous improvement of academic quality. To this end, a non-experimental descriptive research was designed, consisting of two variables: characteristics of higher education students and job expectations. After the application of a mixed survey (open and closed questions) the data were analyzed in a quantitative and qualitative way. The most outstanding results indicated the desire of the subjects to become agents of change and to fulfill their teaching role (90.24%) Despite considering that the race is not valued by Venezuelan society, most of the sample indicated that they have developed skills of social sensitivity, fostered directly from the Metropolitan University and showed that 47.62% as the main job expectation to the Educational Management, which seems to indicate the high expectations of work as there is a projection in the highest hierarchy of the educational hierarchy. It was concluded that studying the work expectations of higher education students contributes to the improvement of study plans, which translates into the improvement of the academic quality service, within the framework of knowing the reality of the social-labor sector in conjunction with the interests, needs and expectations of subjects of higher education that favor the insertion in the labor market.

KEY WORDS: labor expectations, initial education, university students, work, teaching, social sensitivity, labor market

RESUMEN
El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo principal determinar las expectativas laborales de los estudiantes de la carrera de Educación Inicial en la Universidad Metropolitana (Caracas-Venezuela) para contribuir al proceso de mejoramiento continuo de la calidad académica. Para ello se diseñó una investigación no experimental de tipo descriptivo conformada por dos variables: características de los estudiantes de educación superior y expectativas laborales. Tras la aplicación de una encuesta mixta (preguntas abiertas y cerradas) se analizaron los datos de manera cuantitativa y cualitativa. Los resultados más resaltantes señalaron el deseo de los sujetos de convertirse en agentes de cambio y desempeñar su rol docente (90,24%) a pesar de considerar que la carrera no es valorada por la sociedad venezolana, la mayoría de la muestra indicó que han desarrollado habilidades de sensibilidad social, fomentada directamente desde la Universidad Metropolitana y se mostró que el 47,62% como expectativa laboral principal a la Gerencia Educativa, lo cual pareciera indicar las altas expectativas laborales pues existe la proyección en el escalafón más alto de la jerarquía educativa. Se concluyó que estudiar las expectativas laborales de los estudiantes de educación superior contribuye al mejoramiento de los pensum de estudio lo cual se traduce en un mejor servicio y aumento de la calidad académica, en el marco que conocer la realidad del sector social-laboral en conjunto con los intereses, necesidades y expectativas de los sujetos, favorece la inserción en el mercado laboral.

PALABRAS CLAVE: expectativas laborales, educación inicial, estudiantes universitarios, trabajo, docencia, sensibilidad social, mercado laboral

RESUME
Este estudo teve como principal objetivo determinar as expectativas laborais dos estudantes que cursam educação inicial na Universidade Metropolitana de Caracas (Venezuela) para contribuir ao processo de melhoramento continuo da qualidade acadêmica para isso se desenhou uma investigação não experimental tipo descritiva conformada por duas variáveis: características dos estudantes de educação superior e expectativas laborais. Depois de uma encosta mista (perguntas abertas e fechadas) analisaram os dados de maneira quantitativa e qualitativa. Os resultados mais ressaltantes assinalam o desejo dos sujeitos de converter-se em agentes de troca e desempenhar seu papel docente (90,24 por cento) apesar de considerar que o curso não e valorizado pela sociedade venezuelana, a maioria da amostra indicou que desenvolveram habilidades de sensibilidade social, fomentada diretamente desde a Universidade Metropolitana e foi mostrado que um 47,62 por cento como expectativa laboral principal à Gerencia Educativa, o qual parecia indicar as altas expectativas laborais, pois existe a projeção em um escalão mais alto da hierarquia educativa. Concluiu que estudar as expectativas laborais dos estudantes de educação superior contribui ao melhoramento dos planos de estudo o qual se traduz em serviço de qualidade acadêmica, no contexto de conhecer a realidade do setor-sócio laboral em conjunto com os interesses, necessidades e expectativas dos sujeitos, favorecendo a inserção no mercado laboral.

PALAVRAS CHAVE: expectativas laborais, educação inicial, estudantes universitários,trabalho, docência, sensibilidade social, mercado laboral

Correspondence: Natalia Castañón Octavio. Metropolitan University. Venezuela.
ncastanon@unimet.edu.ve
Laura Ocanto Gómez. Metropolitan University. Venezuela.
laura.ocanto@correo.unimet.edu.ve
Valerie Tirado Aldana. Metropolitan University. Venezuela.
valerietirado@correo.unimet.edu.ve

Received: 04/02/2019
Accepted: 08/05/2019
Published: 15/09/2019

How to cite the article: Castañón Octavio, N.; Ocanto Gómez, L., and Tirado Aldana, V. (2019). Study about labor expectations of students of the initial education career at the Metropolitan University Caracas-Venezuela. [Estudio sobre expectativas laborales de estudiantes de la carrera de educación inicial en la Universidad Metropolitana de Caracas-Venezuela]. Vivat Academia. Revista de Comunicación, 148, 57-76.
DOI: http://doi.org/10.15178/va.2019.148.57-76
Recovered from http://www.vivatacademia.net/index.php/vivat/article/view/1157

1. INTRODUCTION

The students of the Career of Initial Education of the Metropolitan University (UNIMET), like the common one of the university students, have labor expectations. These expectations present different visions depending particularly on each student.
The authors agree with the definition of labor expectations proposed by Batlle, Vidondo, Dueñas, Nuñez and Rodríguez (2009), by defining them as “elections that involve more realistic aspects, being able to recognize and include a certain knowledge of oneself about capabilities and interests and also aspects of the context” (p.5).
However, job expectations, as mentioned above, are particular to each student, vary over time and depend on the personal, social, cultural and economic level, etc. Bourdieu cited by Corica (2012), mentions that:

Aspirations tend to become more realistic, more strictly adjusted to real possibilities, as the latter increase. The distance between the level of aspiration and the level of reality, between needs and means, tends to decrease as it rises in the social stratum and, therefore, in the level of income (p. 86).

According to Bourdieu, economic differentiation will be linked to aspirations; that is, that future decisions will be made based on the effective possibilities of being achieved.
Another point of view is that presented by Bandura (2001), who argues that job expectations, or how he defines them as result expectations, depend on the value judgments that each student has on their skills to perform in a particular situation. For the aforementioned author, the expectations of results are presented in three different ways: The first are material expectations, which are linked to both costs, materials and their benefits; as to economic retribution and stability in employment, the second are the social expectations that are formed from positive or negative social reactions, such as prestige, power, influence, and social approval; and finally, the personal expectations aimed at negative and positive self-evaluative reactions are presented, among these are personal satisfaction, the assessment of employment and self-realization, etc.
Obviously, the frustration and anxiety caused by the non-fulfillment of labor expectations in the country, added to other current factors, leads to a professional exodus that shortages the main areas of initial training, in terms of personnel trained to perform functions; under its correct title. This is based on the statistics presented by the World Bank (2017a), which stipulate that the volume of Venezuelan emigrants for 2015 was 1,404,448 million, equivalent to 4.6% of the total population of the country.
In addition to the above, the incentives generated by the new job opportunities and the high remuneration levels offered by developed countries invite professional exodus. This statement is not only restricted to the labor characteristics, it is necessary to include the particularities of the socio-cultural and political environment of a society that disrupts the daily life of its members, and that has a significant influence on decision making for work, family aspirations and personal (Sieglin and Zúñiga, 2010, p. 58).
It should be mentioned that there are other elements that encourage academic migration, these may be, the desire to study in an institution with international recognition and prestige. According to Gérard, Kail, Lanoue, Proteau and Ronan (2008) cited by Sieglin and Zúñiga (2010), this type of higher education institutions, which allow it to be part of an international scientific community and provide access to other cultures, can catapult him into a successful and internationally recognized professional with the sole purpose of guaranteeing the desired salary level (p. 61).
It should also be noted that job placement is the primary goal of university students. In this regard Pérez (2015), states that:

The job placement of recent graduates is a complex process, very dependent on the evolution of the labor market, which is characterized, in general, by a lower employment stability, greater job insecurity, an increase in competitiveness, higher qualification requirements for the performance of posts, among others (p. 7).

Regarding the Education career, there may be a misinformation and degradation of the importance of the teaching profession. The above, directly and negatively influences the interest of new students when considering it as their future profession, believing that it will not meet their job expectations. In this regard, Caram, Gil and Naigeboren (2009) point out that:

There is an ambiguity with respect to professional expectations when entering the career, it is observed that in the first years only the minority links the role of the pedagogue with the teaching function, while in the last stretch of the career the professional expectations are broadened and they are defined towards other fields of labor insertion. [...] The ambiguity could be related to lack of information or ignorance about professional roles, with motivational aspects and of vocational choice. Undoubtedly the global economic crisis, the unemployment, the instability of the working world, the difficulty to find a job and maintain it, are factors that affect this weak occupational identity. (p. 338).

Different countries have implemented, in response to the above, the so-called Observatories, which, as Farné (2011) stipulates, serve as an “instrument of permanent measurement and research of the main social, economic indicators and especially of the labor market situation. and training at the regional level”(p. 4). In this way, it is strengthened, as Pérez (2015) states a “university-market binomial, in terms of adjustment between the offer of graduates and demands of the labor market” (p. 11).
In reference to the career of Initial Education, this is based on the exercise of teaching, research, cultural promotion, social-community development and education administration, these being the main intentions of their education. The Venezuelan situation, in terms of education issues, invites to manage a change in the pedagogical vision, where the educational practice possesses a critical, innovative and self-managed sense of the educational and social fact (Unimet, n.d.). For the Metropolitan University in harmony with its mission and vision, the specific competences in the training of its teachers are:

  • Planning of education: professional training from the curricular and institutional scope.
  • Evaluation: professional training for supervision and monitoring of social and educational processes, in order to achieve their relevance.
  • Research in two dimensions: integrated to the teaching act and as a scientific activity.
  • Teacher competence as an agent of social change in three dimensions: educational, legal and cultural.

The Education career has three differences in relation to other careers in the same institution. In the first place, there is the possibility of obtaining the title of Higher Technician in Education, where seven semesters of the course are completed with mandatory requirements such as: prelatory and community service, teaching practices, level of English certified by the university as bilingual and six elective subjects. Second, the mode of study is a Bachelor of Education with three mentions: Initial, Integral and Without Mention. Third, its flow chart is made up of modules promoting integral education and self-management (Unimet, n.d.).
Nevertheless the above mentioned, in the consulted literature, no evidence of previous investigations was found, in which the work expectations of the students of Initial Education in UNIMET are determined.
Responding to the results of the research, we want to argue the following question: What are the job expectations of the students of Initial Education at Metropolitan University?

2. OBJECTIVES

2.1. General objetive

To determine the labor expectations of the students of the Initial Education career at UNIMET to contribute to the process of continuous improvement of academic quality.

2.2. Especific objetives

To detect the work expectations of the students of the Initial Education career of the Metropolitan University, according to the personal characteristics.
To characterize the work expectations of the students of the Initial Education career of the Metropolitan University, according to the academic profile.
To explore the labor expectations of the students of the Initial Education career of the Metropolitan University, according to the country context.

3. METHODOLOGY

3.1. Research design

The present investigation is based on a non-experimental design, since it is done without deliberately manipulating variables. The phenomenon of the labor expectations of the students of Initial Education of the UNIMET is studied, and later the obtained data are analyzed. Identifying the elements of the non-experimental study, because no event is generated, but existing situations are observed, without being intentionally provoked; by whoever carries out the research, there is no direct control or influence over them, because they have already happened, as well as their effects (Hernández, Fernández and Baptista, 2010).
It can be defined as a cross-sectional study, because the data are collected in a single moment (Hernández, Fernández and Baptista, 2010), this being the quarter corresponding to April-July 2018.

3.2. Type of Research

Corresponds to a type of descriptive research, which “seeks to specify the properties, characteristics and profiles of people, groups, communities, processes, objects or any other phenomenon that undergoes an analysis” (Hernández, Fernández and Baptista, 2010, p. 80). This study seeks to determine characteristics, profiles and labor trends of the group of students of Initial Education of UNIMET, it is not intended to indicate effects but to investigate possible relationships.

3.3. Variables, dimensions and indicators

The variables of this research focus on higher education students, specifically those who belong to the UNIMET Initial Education career, and their job expectations, both without receiving manipulation from the researchers, seeking to clarify the relationship between both.
It is very important to establish the concept of variable, which is provided by Balestrini (2002) as “an aspect or dimension of an object, or a property of these aspects or dimensions that acquires different values and therefore varies” (p. 113).
The dependent variable university students is, according to the Faculty of Legal and Political Sciences of the University of Zulia (2013):

University education students who have obtained the bachelor’s degree and meet the entry requirements of the university education institutions established by them and by the bodies of the university education subsystem within their areas of competence. (s.p.)

The dependent variable labor expectations, are defined as a set of personal, material and social expectations, which are adjusted to the socioeconomic reality of their authors, where there is a material and social satisfaction, through compliance with them. (Suriá et al., 2013b).
The variables, dimensions and indicators of this research are presented in the following table:

Table 1. Variables, dimensions and indicators.

Source: Self made.

3.5. Population and sample

The population of this study, is constituted by the students of the Initial Education career of the Metropolitan University, being a total of thirty- three (33) students. Intentional sampling was used for convenience. The criterion established for the sample was to be active students who take university courses corresponding to the curriculum of Initial Education, in the undergraduate mode.

3.5. Instrument for data collection and analysis

The collection instrument is the main source of data acquisition, which are based on the variables studied, this yields quantitative results, but in turn, the measurement of qualitative results.
The collection of data based on the variables, these being the university students and their job expectations, was carried out through a questionnaire, whose survey modality was written in an instrument or paper format containing a series of questions. It is called a self-administered questionnaire because it must be completed by the respondent, without the intervention of the interviewer.
The survey used was adapted from the instrument developed for the ongoing research carried out by the research team of the teacher Natalia Castañón Octavio named Labor Expectations in Higher Education.
Prior to the application of the questionnaire, the validation of the instrument by four professors of the Metropolitan University and a pilot test was carried out with students.
This study is characterized by a quantitative analysis approach, since the data collected through the survey are results of the measuring instrument, in addition, of its qualitative characteristics by the description of the job expectations identified. The mixed method will be used as it provides a broader perspective of the phenomenon to be studied.

4. RESULTS

Next, the results will be announced and some possible relationships that emerge from them will be described later. The survey was given to 33 subjects who formed the sample, however, only 21 subjects answered.

Table 2. Accumulated Academic Index (AAI).

Source: Self made.

The Accumulated Academic Index (AAI) is a general appreciation of performance, where the sum of the weights obtained place the student in a certain score. As shown in the table, 52.38% of the students have an AAI between 14 and 15.9 points. 19.05% between 12 and 13.9 points. 12 subjects did not answer this question.

Table 3. In case of having entered through the University Diagnostic Test (UDT), specify in which list it was positioned.

Source: Self made.

Since “list 1” refers to high academic performance in the instrumental areas of “mathematics” and “language”, it can be seen that the majority of the group entered the University with weaknesses in these areas. These results will be related to the Current Academic Indices (CAI), to verify the progress of each of the subjects.

Table 4. Point out your desired work opportunity.

Source: Self made.

The results evidences two main focuses as desired jobs. First, educational management and then.

Table 5. Areas in which you wish to play when you obtain the degree of Licentiate in Initial Education.

Source: Self made.

Before this question the subjects could respond to several alternatives, where it is evident in their results that almost the entire sample wants to work as a teacher and half of it as an educational manager. This coincides with the results indicated in Table 4.

Table 6. The career you are studying will help you achieve your desired job.

Source: Self made.

This result could respond to personal expectations where Bandura (2001) highlights the self-realization in the choice of the university career in coherence with work performance.

Table 7. The career you are studying makes you an agent of change.

Source: Self made.

Given these results, it could be inferred that studying the initial education career responds to personal expectations and interests, such as a positive social reaction from the teaching profession.

Table 8. Consider that you need an Initial Education degree to perform as a teacher.

Source: Self made.

According to the results shown in the table, it is evident that the majority of the subjects consider that the university education is necessary for the teaching performance. It should be noted that according to Juárez and García (2015), 47.74% of teachers nationwide do not have ownership of the position they hold.

Table 9. The performance as a teacher is affordable for your economic situation.

Source: Self made.

The data obtained demonstrate a disjunction between the students. The impoverishment of wages and constant devaluation of income are determining factors for the teaching profession (Rodríguez, 2004), hence the marked difference in the response of the subjects.

Table 10. Working conditions.

Source: Self made.

The data provided confirm the preferences regarding working conditions that, despite entering the labor field with little experience, students have high projections expressing defined material expectations.

Table 11. Benefits.

Source: Self made.

Through these results, material expectations are repeated, accompanied to a lesser extent by personal expectations.

Table 12. Performance and country.

Source: Self made.

The high number of subjects who wish to carry out their profession in another country could respond to the fact that in Venezuela, at present, it does not provide purchasing power, physical well-being or opportunities for labor improvement to its inhabitants, therefore the expectations are not met (Suárez, 2016).
From these results we can infer the following inferences or relationships:
By observing the “input list” in which students entered the university (if they enter in “List 1” it refers to high performance or until “list 5” which refers to lower performance), and it is compared with the first 5 categories in which the answers of the Academic Accumulated Index (AAI) were divided, it can be observed that students stayed with an index corresponding to their list of entrance, in half the cases even they are now in a lower category of academic index from the one corresponding to their list .
Teaching at different levels of the school system is part of the response of 95.24% (20) about the job opportunities that they aspire to, which draws attention when observing that 95.24% consider that in the Venezuelan society they do not value their career, and that 100% (21) think that studying it can help him become an agent of social change, so it can be indicated that despite the low social value of the career, the subjects of the sample continue studying, they want to perform in the educational field and take advantage of the career to have a positive impact on society.
Since 100% (21) of the respondents answered that they would like to continue with their professional training, the coherence that exists with 80.95% (17) stands out, that would like to have refresher courses as an unpaid benefit, even over food vouchers and general benefits such as transportation.
The students demonstrated coherence between the studies they are doing and their work desires, obtaining that 100% (21) of the population consider that their studies in Initial Education will give them the opportunity to achieve their desired job, demonstrating the satisfaction of their personal and material expectations.
It can be seen how the students admitted in the years 2014 and 2016, who make up 61.90% (13), that is, most of the population, are seen as educational managers and teachers at different levels. It should be noted that those who aspire to senior management positions entered years before those who aspire to be teachers. In agreement with Caram et al., (2009), the expectations of those who have just entered the race will be different from those who are studying the last academic periods.

  • The level of material, social and personal expectations in managerial positions represent higher salary remuneration, social acceptance and self-realization, this is given by its location in the hierarchy of educational organizations.
  • When comparing the results of the perspective on oneself to perform this profession it is necessary to obtain a qualification and the country in which you wish to practice the profession, 81% (17) answered affirmatively to the premise of requiring a qualification, of them, twelve (12) indicated that they intend to have their future work in a country other than Venezuela.
  • Despite not being able to observe a clear relationship between the socioeconomic stratum and the desired economic remuneration, it was observed in the salary remuneration that of 61.9% (13), which indicated its interest in practicing the profession in a country other than Venezuela, eight (8) respondents indicated that they want the highest remuneration, 10 times the minimum wage and more than 10 times the minimum wage.
  • There was no direct relationship between the accumulated academic index and the expectations of future positions of the respondents.
  • No relationship was observed between the perspective of whether the performance of the profession is affordable for their economic situation and the remuneration to which they aspire.

5. DISCUSSION

In the present investigation, it can be concluded that there is a diversity of material, social and personal expectations in the students of the Initial Education career at the Metropolitan University. Including all these in their job expectations as recent graduates of the profession, with little or no previous work experience.
Considering the first specific objective: To detect the labor expectations of the students of the Initial Education career of the Metropolitan University, according to the personal characteristics, it was obtained that:
In the results obtained through the investigation, the personal interests of each student were known, demonstrating a variety of criteria. Highlighting, as a generalized response, the desire to become an agent of change and play its teaching role (90.24%) despite considering that the career is not valued by Venezuelan society. Reaffirming that there is greater influence of their personal expectations when generating job aspirations, social expectations are minimized by students.
On the other hand, conducting a survey on the income levels that students perceive was significant for the research, since some authors argue that the more knowledge and acceptance of it, the more adjusted their job expectations. Likewise, a population is identified between strata B and C in its majority. There are no great differences between the job opportunities desired by students and their socioeconomic status.
However, it is considered beneficial to carry out such studies, because the respondents certainly managed to locate themselves in the corresponding stratum, taking into account their housing conditions and the occupation of the economic responsible. At the same time, it was evident that 47.62% indicated educational management as the desired job opportunity. For the authors, it means that their material, social and personal expectations are high, because they are projected in the highest hierarchy of the educational hierarchy, that is, they have expectations adjusted to their profession, but in a high range.
Added to this, the perspective of students based on the need to hold a degree in Education to be able to practice the profession, 80.95% considers the degree necessary, and can be estimated as a high level in the assessment of employment.
In line with the personal characteristics, the students showed, when freely choosing their additional area of work, a tendency towards traditional branches that complement the Initial Education, being these, psychology and psychopedagogy in 42.86% of the population.
Also, students proved their individual desires to continue training through workshops, masters, postgraduates and doctorates, being a trend of 100% of the sample, since, the authors infer, they have desires to expand their economic rewards, prestige and self-realization. These results were considered relevant when verifying the material expectations of the same, since as stated in the literature, the labor market is dynamic, changing and highly demanding, therefore, professionals must have continuous and updated training. In light of this assertion, the respondents considered the updating courses (80.95%) as a priority within the labor benefits, a relevant fact when considering the situation in Venezuela, at the level of food and monetary needs.
Hence, continuing with the material expectations obtained, there was a difference where the results show that 52.58% of students consider that with the title of Bachelor of Early Education they could provide a stable economic situation and mostly in private institutions since they respond to the socioeconomic needs.
Therefore, when making such a choice, the students demonstrate, again, high material and social expectations, by selecting ten times the minimum wage as adequate remuneration for a newly graduated educator (38.10%). The majority of respondents would like to have working conditions with remunerations and benefits such as those indicated previously.
Regarding the second specific objective, we have: to characterize the job expectations of the students of the Initial Education career of the Metropolitan University, according to the academic profile.
The majority of respondents began their studies in 2016, making up the youngest population in Initial Education in the University, the authors consider that job opportunities could vary for said validity in the career. However, the study showed that this population has similar expectations to those that entered in previous years. That is to say, the time of formation and permanence in the academic studies for this research were not determinant, which is in opposition to the exposed by the authors studied.
I order to know in depth the trajectory of the students, who have clearly defined expectations, the entry route was confirmed, where the majority acceded through the diagnostic test, location and comprehensive evaluation (80.95%).
As a result, these students who positioned themselves in certain location lists (1 to 5), continue with academic indexes similar to the lists obtained, and even decreased their performance. Being an additional result of great interest, not seeing mobility in terms of academic progress within the basic and specific training of the institution.
However, a large part of the population considers teaching as their fundamental job opportunity. But, a result that generates disparity, is the one obtained in the assessment of specific competences, since the competition that received the highest score was the one that responds to the teacher as an agent of social change, in three dimensions: educational, legal and cultural (63 points in total). The students did not give the highest rating to the competence that par excellence supports the teaching role, the planning of education (46) and the evaluation (48). At the same time, there is evidence of consistency with his personal profile, about the career of Initial Education as a possible agent of change for Venezuelan society.
The third specific objective responds to: exploring the work expectations of the students of the Initial Education career of the Metropolitan University, according to the country context.
Certainly, as the authors affirm, the Venezuelan migration is an imminent situation, being reflected in the population of students of Initial Education with a remarkable emphasis (61.90%), in coherence with their desires to practice teaching, but moving to countries such as Spain, the United States and Argentina. Similarly, it was notorious that part of the population, although it was the minority (33.33%), wants to work as an educator in Venezuela, considering its percentage as striking.
Concluding that determining the work expectations of the students of the Initial Education career at UNIMET, a fundamental assessment is given to contribute to the process of continuous improvement of academic quality, since, from the knowledge of the realities, interests, needs and obviously, the three expectations that were studied in the present investigation, is that they can actually elaborate functional action plans, in favor of the academic and labor excellence of the Unimetan population, and the dynamism of the labor market.

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AUTHORS

Natalia Castañón Octavio: Full-time professor/researcher at the Metropolitan University (1993-). Founder of tuterapiaenlinea.com (2014-). Degree in Education (Universidad Metropolitana, 1991), Master in School Psychology (Complutense University of Madrid, 1993). Doctorate in Philosophy and Education Sciences (Complutense University of Madrid, 1999). He has completed a teaching, management and research career: head of the teaching department (2002-), head of the humanities department (2014-), general manager of the online learning center (2014) and research professor. She has been a tutor of thirty (37) undergraduate, master’s and doctoral thesis. Publications in twenty-two (22) magazines or books arbitrated nationally and internationally. Participation in forty (40) National and International congresses with refereed papers.
ncastanon@unimet.edu.ve
Orcid ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7532-6924

Laura Ocanto Gómez: He teaches English as a foreign language at the El Ávila Integral School in Caracas (2018-). Degree in Education from the Metropolitan University in 2019 (Caracas-Venezuela). She served as RRSS coordinator of the Knowledge Generators Association, Simón Bolívar University (2015-2016), and research assistant in the Department of Education Sciences (2018) together with prof. Natalia Castañón Octavio.
laura.ocanto@correo.unimet.edu.ve

Valerie H. Tirado Aldana: He currently works as a substitute teacher at the Naval College of Bogotá. Bachelor of Education Initial mention of the Metropolitan University (Caracas-Venezuela). She served as coordinator of the center of education students at the Metropolitan University (2016-2019). Aspiring student of the Master of Psychopedagogy of the University of Barcelona in his second cohort (Spain).
valerietirado@correo.unimet.edu.ve

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